Jessica Walburn, Martha Canfield, Sam Norton, Kirby Sainsbury, Vera Araújo-Soares, Lesley Foster, Mark Berneburg, Alain Sarasin, Natalie Morrison-Bowen, Falko F Sniehotta, Robert Sarkany, John Weinman
Objectives: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an extremely rare genetic disorder (approximately 100 known cases in the United Kingdom), where DNA damage caused by ultraviolet radiation in daylight cannot be repaired. Adherence to photoprotection is essential to prevent skin cancer. We investigated psychological correlates of photoprotection in the XP population of Western Europe and the United States.
Design: Cross-sectional survey of adults with XP and caregivers of patients <16 years and those with cognitive impairment in the United Kingdom, Germany, the United States, and France (n = 156).
Methods: Photoprotection activities to protect the face and body when outdoors; avoidance of going outside during daylight hours; intention; self-efficacy; and social support were assessed using measures developed for this study. Participants answered questions about their illness representations of XP (BIPQ); beliefs about photoprotection (BMQ); automaticity (i.e., without conscious effort) (SRBAI); clinical and demographic characteristics. Ordinal logistic regressions determined factors associated with photoprotection.
Results: One third did not achieve optimal face photoprotection. After controlling for demographic and clinical factors, modifiable correlates of higher photoprotection included greater perceived control of XP, stronger beliefs in necessity and effectiveness of photoprotection, and higher intention. Avoidance of going outside was associated with greater photoprotection concerns, more serious illness consequences, and higher XP-related distress. Greater automaticity and higher self-efficacy were associated with better protection across all outcomes.
Conclusions: Approximately half of all known cases across three European countries participated. Identified modifiable predictors of photoprotection may be targeted by interventions to reduce the incidence of skin cancers in the immediate future, when a treatment breakthrough is unlikely. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Adherence to photoprotection in other populations at elevated risk from skin cancer is poor; however, the level in XP is unknown. Research across chronic conditions shows that adherence to treatment and lifestyle recommendations are influenced by illness perceptions, self-efficacy, and treatment beliefs. Studies on photoprotection conducted with the general population have found that perceived risk, perceptions of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) protection, self-efficacy for the behaviour, and automaticity (behaviours that are enacted with little conscious awareness) are related to better photoprotection. What does this study add? This is the first international survey to examine adherence and its correlates in people with XP (an under-researched group at very high risk of fatal skin cancer). Adherence varies and at least one third have potential for improvement. Perceptions about XP, photoprotection beliefs, self-efficacy, intention, and automaticity were associated with photoprotection of the face and body when outdoors. Negative emotional representations of XP were associated with avoidance of going outside during daylight hours.
© 2019 The Authors. British Journal of Health Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.